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The Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, Bow Street, London

Formerly - The Theatre Royal in Covent Garden / The Theatre Royal, Covent Garden / The Royal Italian Opera House / Holland's Grand Circus

Introduction - First Theatre 1732 - Second Theatre 1809 - Reconstructed - Royal Italian Opera House 1847 - Third and Present Theatre 1858 - Holland's Grand Circus 1884 - The Royal Opera House Today

The Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, in October 2006. - Photo M.L.

Above - The Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, in October 2006.

See London's West End TheatresSee Theatreland MapsSee this Theatre on Google StreetviewThe Royal Opera House in Covent Garden that we know today was designed by Sir Edward M. Barry and constructed by Frederick Gye.

The Theatre opened as the Royal Italian Opera House on the 15th of May 1858 with a production of 'Les Huguenots' by Meyerbeer.

The present building is actually the third Theatre to have been constructed on the site since 1732. Details of all the Theatres on the site follows, and there is more information on the present Opera House below.

The First Theatre 1732 - 1808

The first Theatre Royal, Covent Garden after reconstruction by Henry Holland in 1792, showing the Bow Street frontage to the left and the Hart Street frontage to the right - From 'The Survey of London Volume XXXV' kindly donated by John Otto.

Above - The first Theatre Royal, Covent Garden after reconstruction by Henry Holland in 1792, showing the Bow Street frontage to the left and the Hart Street frontage to the right - From 'The Survey of London Volume XXXV' kindly donated by John Otto.

The First Theatre on the site opened as the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden on the 7th of December 1732 with 'The Way of the World' by William Congeve. This was a 'Patent Theatre' as granted to Sir William Devenant by Charles II, but this second Patent (the first was granted to the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane) actually originally applied to the Duke's Theatre in Lincoln's Inn and only ended up with the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden after the Patent was eventually handed down to John Rich, who began building the Covent Garden Theatre in March of 1731.

The Theatre was built on land leased to John Rich from the Duke of Bedford and designed by the architect James Shepherd. The interior being decorated by the Italian Artist, Amiconi, with a capacity of 1,897. Handel arrived here in 1734 and produced many Operas and Ballets. David Garrick appeared here in 1746, fresh from Drury Lane, and it was in this Theatre that a new invention called the 'Piano Forte' was first heard in 1767. 'She Stoops To Conquer' had its first performance here in March 1773, and the first production of Sheridan's 'The Rivals' was produced at the Theatre in 1775. Details of productions at the Covent Garden Theatre, and Drury Lane, from 1760 to 1771 can be read here.

A Plan and Section of Edward Shepherd's Theatre Royal, Covent Garden of 1732, engraved in 1774 - From 'The Survey of London Volume XXXV' kindly donated by John Otto.

Above - A Plan and Section of Edward Shepherd's Theatre Royal, Covent Garden of 1732, engraved in 1774 - From 'The Survey of London Volume XXXV' kindly donated by John Otto.

The Theatre was remodelled in 1782 by John Inigo Richards, and in 1788 the first stage production of 'Aladdin' was performed at the Theatre, this was an adaptation, by John O'Keefe, of the book 'The Arabian Nights' which had been published in England some 80 years earlier.

The Theatre was reconstructed again, almost completely this time, by Henry Holland in 1792 and at a cost of £25,000, a huge sum at the time. It opened on the 17th of September 1792. Sadly it was to have a very short life as on the 20th of September 1808 the Theatre Royal burnt down, taking with it Handel's own Organ and many of his manuscripts.

The Second Theatre 1809 - 1858

Reconstructed as the Royal Italian Opera House in 1847

The Second Covent Garden Theatre of 1809 - From The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection.

Above - The Second Covent Garden Theatre of 1809 - From The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection, New York Public Library Digital Collections.

A Bill for September the 11th 1809, announcing that "the New Theatre Royal, Covent-Garden, will be opened On Monday next, September 18th 1809, with the Tragedy of Macbeth. The Cast included Mr. Kemble as Macbeth and Mrs. Siddons as Lady Macbeth - Reproduced in 'Shakspere to Sheridan' by Alwin Thaler, published in 1922. The Second Theatre on the site had its foundation stone laid by the Prince of Wales on December the 31st 1808, the same year that the first Theatre had burnt down.

The Theatre was designed by the architect Robert Smirke and reportedly cost the vast sum of £150,000 to build. Robert Smirke also designed the main structure and facade of the British Museum, the building now known as Canada House; the east wing of Somerset House, and many other prominent London buildings, although this was his only Theatre.

The Theatre was a little smaller than the first Theatre but held a lot more people, 3000 in all. Taking just ten months to build the new Theatre opened on the 18th of September 1809 with a production of Shakespeare's 'Macbeth' (See the opening Bill shown on this page).

Right - A Bill for September the 11th 1809, announcing that "the New Theatre Royal, Covent-Garden, will be opened On Monday next, September 18th 1809, with the Tragedy of Macbeth. The Cast included Mr. Kemble as Macbeth and Mrs. Siddons as Lady Macbeth - Reproduced in 'Shakspere to Sheridan' by Alwin Thaler, published in 1922.

The lower part of the Bill shown right goes to some pains to explain why the ticket prices for the new Theatre are so much higher than that of the old Theatre. I have transcribed the piece below with modern English spelling:-

The Proprietors, having completed the New Theatre, within the time promised, beg leave respectfully to state to the Public the absolute necessity that compels them to make the following advance on the prices of admission. First Price: Boxes, Seven Shillings; Pit, Four Shillings - Half Price: Boxes, Three Shillings and Sixpence; Pit, As Usual. The Lower Galleries will remain at the old prices. - On the late calamitous destruction of their property, the Proprietors, encouraged by the remembrance of former patronage, instantly and cheerfully applied themselves to the erection of a new Theatre, felicitous only that, without enlarging the audience-part of the edifice, it might afford the Public improved accommodation and security, and at the same time present an additional ornament to the Metropolis of the British Empire. This, their most anxious wish, they flatter themselves, they have solidly effected, not only within the short space of ten months from the laying of the foundations, but under the enormously expensive disadvantage of circumstances singularly unfavourable to building. When it is known that no less a sum than one hundred and fifty thousand pounds has been expended in order to render this Theatre worthy of British Spectators, and of the Genius of their native Poets: - when, in this undertaking, the inevitable accumulation of, at least, a sixfold rentage is stated to be incurred; - and when, in addition to these pressing encumbrances, the increased and rapidly increasing prices of every article indispensable to dramatic representations came to be considered, - the Proprietors persuade themselves that in their proposed regulation they shall be honoured with the concurrence of an enlightened and liberal Public.

Despite the management's explanation of the price rises at the new Covent Garden Theatre shown above, the public were extremely unhappy with the situation and a long period of unrest ensued, at the time known as the 'Old Price Riots'. The details are too involved to go into here but if you are interested in reading more about it there is a brief article on it here, a short film about it here, and the book 'The Covent Garden Journal' published the following year in 1810 and available online here, goes into great detail on the whole situation.

A Caricature of the 'Old Price Riots' at the Covent Garden Theatre in 1809 from a coloured print of the time - Reproduced in 'Shakspere to Sheridan' by Alwin Thaler, published in 1922.

Above - A Caricature of the 'Old Price Riots' at the Covent Garden Theatre in 1809 from a coloured print of the time - Reproduced in 'Shakspere to Sheridan' by Alwin Thaler, published in 1922.

The Second Covent Garden Theatre shortly after it opened - From 'The Covent Garden Journal' by Joseph Stockdale, published in 1810.

Above - The Second Covent Garden Theatre shortly after it opened - From 'The Covent Garden Journal' by Joseph Stockdale, published in 1810.

A description of the new Theatre was printed in Volume 1 of the 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London' published in 1825 saying:- 'The Temple of Minerva, in the Acropolis at Athens, suggested the design for the portico of this edifice, - the order of which is pure Grecian Doric. The principal front, in Bow Street, measures 220 feet from one extremity to the other; the Hart-Street front and its parallel (which is approached by piazzas from Bow Street and Covent Garden), are in extent 178 feet, or nearly so. The Bow-Street front presents a magnificent portico, with four columns of the Doric order, very large, fluted, and without bases; supporting a pediment and elevated upon a flight of steps. The whole front is inclosed by iron rail-work; and the upper part is decorated by basso relievo representations of the Drama, antient and modern, which are sculptured in long pannels, separated by the portico.

The Elevation of the Principal Front in Bow Street, with its Portico &c., of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'

Above - The Elevation of the Principal Front in Bow Street, with its Portico &c., of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'

The Exterior of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'On that side nearest to Hart Street, in the centre of the sculpture, sit three Greek Poets; namely, AEschylus, the father of Tragedy, his face towards the Hart-Street corner and Aristophanes and Menander, the fathers of antient and modern Comedy: the two latter face the portico; and Thalia, with the crook and mask, is inviting them to imitate her sprightly example. Polyhymnia and Euterpe, with the greater and lesser lyres; Clio, with the longer pipe; and Terpsichore, indicative of action, or mime, following her. Three nymphs, crowned with fir pine, succeed, attending Pegasus. Minerva is placed opposite to AEschylus, who appears attending to her dictates: and between them, leaning on his fawn, is Bacchus; typical of tragedy having been invented in honour of "the wine-giver." Behind Minerva is Melpomene, with a sword and mask: two Furies succeed, pursuing Orestes; the latter imploring the aid of Apollo, who appears in his chariot. In the centre, on the other side of the portico, sits OUR immortal Bard; the emblems of dramatic poetry lying around him. He is summoning, with his right hand, Caliban, laden with wood; Ferdinand, sheathing his sword; and Miranda, with Prospero, whom she is entreating: Ariel is above, sounding enticing airs on his pipe: their backs are towards Shakspeare. This side of the group is filled up by Hecate, in her car, drawn by oxen (at the extreme ); Lady Macbeth, with the daggers; and Macbeth, turning with horror from the dead body of Duncan.

The Exterior of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'The space from Shakspeare to the portico is occupied as follows:- Milton, seated, is contemplating Urania, who surmounts, but faces him; and Samson Agonistes is chained at his feet. Behind them are the two Brothers, driving Comus and three bacchanals before them, the enchanted Sister being seated: the sculpture is terminated by two tigers, emblematical of the brutal transformation of the devotees of sensuality. The figures of Tragedy and Comedy, in niches, occupy, the former the south, and the latter the north, extremity of the building. Comedy has a crook on her right shoulder, the mask in her left hand; and Tragedy exhibits the mask and a dagger.

The Grand Staircase of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'.The grand entrance to the boxes is under the portico in Bow Street; and laterally with it, towards Hart Street, is the entrance appropriated to the private boxes. The grand entrance opens to the vestibule, where, at the right extremity, a large stove is placed; and two boxes for money-takers, and another where free admissions of all kinds are registered, present themselves, immediately upon passing through the folding-doors from the portico. Near each money-taker's box is a Grecian lamp, elevated upon a column of porphyry.

The grand staircase is to the left, central in the hall; divided, longitudinally, by two rows of large Ionic columns, in porphyry, with a superb Grecian lamp suspended between each. This staircase leads to the ante-room, which is ornamented by pilasters of porphyry; and contains a large statue of Shakspeare, executed by Rossi, in yellow marble.

Left - The Grand Staircase of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'.

To the right, from hence, are the folding-doors that lead to the Auditory; and to the principal Saloon, which is supported by pilasters in porphyry, and contains several plaster statues upon pedestals.

Section through Saloon, or Ante-room, to boxes; staircases to the same, and Entrance Hall, Committee-room, &c - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'. The extremity to the right leads to a confectionary, where refreshments are supplied to the company; and there is a place provided for the same purpose at the opposite extremity.

Right - Section through Saloon, or Anteroom, to boxes; staircases to the same, and Entrance Hall, Committee-room, &c - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'.

On the entrance side of the saloon is a large staircase leading to it, right and left, from the first circle of the boxes. This room is superbly lighted, and provided with crimson seats. There is, also, another saloon in a higher story, which was originally appropriated to the private boxes. It is supported by four massive columns of porphyry, with a recess at each end, in which are stoves; and over the mantle-pieces are semicircular looking-glasses:- refreshments are provided here also. The sides of this saloon are occupied by crimson seats, and statues of heathen deities on pedestals, alternately placed.

Transverse Section through the Staircase - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'.There is another entrance to the boxes from Covent Garden, which is handsome, but not so elegant as that from Bow Street: it has two flights of stairs. The entrances to the pit and galleries are from Covent Garden, and on that side of the Theatre which angles (in Bow Street) with the grand front.

Left - Transverse Section through the Staircase - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'.

The Hart-Street front contains the entrance to the Stage, (or stage door,) which opens to a large and convenient porter's hall. On the right is an ante, or waiting-room. To the left is the door leading, on the right, to the cellar, (or all that part of a Theatre under the stage, from whence traps, and rising machinery, &c., are worked;) and on the left to a stone staircase, with iron balustrades, leading up to the stage, and the rooms appropriated to the principals of the different departments in the Theatre; as well as to the painting-room.

At the extremity of this part of the front, and laterally, is the royal entrance; which is a square, called Prince's Place; three sides of which are formed by the walls of different parts of the premises, and the front by lofty iron rails and gates, through which the royal carriage proceeds to the entrance door on the left, whenever His Majesty honours the Theatre with his presence. Adjoining to the gates, and terminating the Hart-Street front, is a handsome building containing the box-office, the housekeeper's residence, and other private apartments connected with the Theatre...

A Plan of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'.

Above - A Plan of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'.

A Sketch showing the Auditorium and Stage of the Second Covent Garden Theatre in 1810 - From the book 'Sheridan to Robertson' By Ernest Bradlee Watson, published in 1926.

Above - A Sketch showing the Auditorium and Stage of the Second Covent Garden Theatre in 1810 - From the book 'Sheridan to Robertson' By Ernest Bradlee Watson, published in 1926.

...The form of the Auditory is that of the horse-shoe; the width, at the extremities, is 51 feet 2 inches; and the depth, from the front lights to the front of the boxes, 52 feet 9 inches. There are three tiers of boxes, each containing twenty-six, including those in the proscenium; and there are seven boxes on each side above them, and parallel with the lower gallery. The number of private boxes are twenty-six, situated as follows:- three on each side in the proscenium; one on each side even with the orchestra; five on each side of the first circle, and four on each side of the second circle; amounting to thirteen on each side. Over the boxes in the proscenium, on each side, is a semicircular appearance of a box, with a crimson inclosure. To the principal private boxes are attached private rooms, with fire-places. The width of the lower gallery is 55 feet, the depth forty. The width of the upper gallery is 55 feet, the depth twenty-five...

The Auditorium from the Stage of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'.

Above - The Auditorium from the Stage of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'.

...The appearance of the house is very imposing: the colour is a subdued yellow, relieved by white, and superbly enriched with gilding. Around the dress circle are wreaths inclosing the Rose of England, in burnished gold; the first circle displays the Thistle of Scotland, and the second circle the Shamrock of Ireland: and these three emblems are alternately placed, with fancy devices, in rich borderings, &c., in every part of the Auditory; which, from the reflection of the lights, gratifies the prevalent taste for splendour with one blaze of refulgence. The back and sides of the pit are decorated by the representation of dark crimson drapery, as are the interiors of all the boxes; which produces a very effective contrast to the brilliancy of the front. The boxes are supported by small iron columns, fluted, and gilt...

The Auditorium and Stage of the Second Covent Garden Theatre shortly after it opened - From 'The Covent Garden Journal' by Joseph Stockdale, published in 1810.

Above - The Auditorium and Stage of the Second Covent Garden Theatre shortly after it opened - From 'The Covent Garden Journal' by Joseph Stockdale, published in 1810.

...The ceiling, over what is called the slip boxes, exhibits pannels of blue, relieved by white, and enriched with gold. The middle part of the ceiling is circular; in the centre of which, from a richly-gilded glory, surrounding a circle of golden lyres, &c., is suspended a chandelier of glass, of the most superb description; illumined by two circles of gas lights: the remainder of the ceiling is a light blue sky, relieved by delicate white clouding. The cove of the proscenium, in the segment of a circle, contains the moiety of a rich gilded glory, and sky to match the ceiling, surrounded by a bordering of gold; in which, as well as round the ceiling, either fancy flowers are introduced, or representations of those national emblems, the Rose, &c. The proscenium is supported by four pilasters, painted to imitate Sienna marble. Stage doors are wholly dispensed with. The top of the proscenium, from whence the curtain descends, is an arch of about thirty-eight feet wide and three feet deep; surmounting a superb drapery border of crimson, white, and gold, elegantly disposed upon a transverse bar of gold, terminated on each side with a lion's head: in the centre of this drapery is the King's Arms. For the green curtain is substituted a drop, representing a luxuriant profusion of drapery; crimson, white, and gold, (to match the borders,) drawn up by cords and tassels; and disclosing part of the interior of a palace, supported by numerous Ionic columns; which has a most imposing appearance. There are also pilasters, imitative of Sienna marble, which slide backward and forward, in order to widen or contract the stage...

The Auditorium and Stage of the Second Covent Garden Theatre in 1810 - From Microcosm of London.

Above - The Auditorium and Stage of the Second Covent Garden Theatre in 1810 - From Microcosm of London, New York Public Library Digital Collections.

...The width of the proscenium in front is 42ft 6in. Width at pilasters 38ft 8in. Height to the centre of the arch 36ft 9in. Ditto, at spring of arch 33ft 3in. Depth of stage, from the front lights to the sliding pilasters 12ft 3in.

The number of superbly brilliant cut-glass chandeliers, which are hung round the Auditory, is fourteen; with three gas lights in each. In the too extreme dress boxes are large looking-glasses.

The King's box is always fitted up on the left of the audience, in the dress circle, and occupies the extent of three or four of the boxes.

The public, or open boxes, will contain about 1,200 people. The pit 750. Second gallery 500. First gallery 350. [Total] 2,800 exclusive of standing-room, &c. The private boxes are let, some by the year, some nightly...

A Plan of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'.

Above - A Plan of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'. Plan Description:- Transverse Section of the Theatre, from C. to D. in the Ground Plan - a. a. a., Various Subterraneous Stables and Rooms; some of which are arched with brick, and others, are covered with boarded floors. b., Portico in Bow Street. c., Hall, or Vestibule, marked A. in the Plan. d., Committee-room. e., Gentlemen's Wardrobe. f., Dressing-room. g., Orchestra, h., Private Box. k., King's Box, and Ante-room to the same. m., Entrances to Private Boxes. n., Passage. o., Ladies' Wardrobe. p., Carpenters' Workshop, in the Roof. q. r. and s., Private Boxes.

...The Stage is large and commodious. On the right of the Auditory, or left of the Stage, are the passages which lead to the superior and inferior green-rooms; the former of which is handsomely fitted up: at one end is a stove, and opposed to it a large looking-glass for the performers to adjust their dresses by, previously to going on the stage. The seats for the performers are covered with crimson, and the windows are decorated by crimson curtains; the room is handsomely carpetted, and there is a large chimney-glass over the stove, with a portrait of the late T. Harris, Esq., so many years proprietor of the Theatre. Performers receiving under a certain salary are not allowed to enter this room but on particular occasions. The inferior green-room is up a flight of stairs, and is neatly fitted up; and here is a piano-forte for the singers to try their songs, and for the choristers to learn their music. Beyond the best green-room is the manager's room, and the passage leads on to the coffee-room, property-room, and others appropriated to the business of the Theatre. The scene-rooms, carpenter's shop, &c., are in this part of the building. The stage is principally lighted by gas.

The stage measures from the front lights to the back wall 68ft 0in.
Width from wall to wall 82ft 6in.
The height of the flats (or flat scenes), which stand transversely on the stage 21ft 0in.
Width of ditto (14 feet each half) 28ft 0in.
Heights of wings, or side scenes 21ft 0in.
Width, about 4ft...

A Plan of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'.

Above - A Plan of the Second Covent Garden Theatre - From 'Illustrations of the public buildings of London Vol 1 1825'. Plan Description:- Longitudinal Section, a. to b. on the Plan. a.b. Scene-rooms. c., Painting-room. d., Stage. e., Mezzanine Floor. f., Cellars beneath the Stage. g., Orchestra, with open arched space beneath, at h., intended to increase the sound of the band. j. j. j., Stables, &c., under the Pit. k., Vaulted‘Passages. I., Room under the Vestibule, rn., to Pit. n., Corridor round the Pit. o., Box Lobby. p., Lower Saloon to Boxes. q., Upper Saloon to ditto. r., Lobby to Gallery. s. s., Carpenters' Workshop. t., Flies.

The Grand Staircase of the Second Covent Garden Theatre shortly after it opened - From 'The Covent Garden Journal' by Joseph Stockdale, published in 1810....The Flies, or that part of the Theatre surmounting the stage, are in size correspondent with the rest of the Theatre, and consist of two stories. These are filled with the machinery used in lowering the curtain, drops, wheels, borders, clouds, &c. &c.; and adjoining them is the painting-room, which is furnished with sky-lights, and measures in length seventy-two feet, and in width thirty-two feet.

Right - The Grand Staircase of the Second Covent Garden Theatre shortly after it opened - From 'The Covent Garden Journal' by Joseph Stockdale, published in 1810.

Of the Persons employed in an Establishment of this magnitude it is almost impossible to give an account; the number is so arbitrary, and depends so much upon circumstances. The principal, regularly engaged, (exclusive of the performers,) are as follows:-

STAGE:- The stage-manager, pantomime-director, chorus and ballet masters, prompter, his deputy, copyist, (he has several assistants,) property-man, and call-boy.

ORCHESTRA:- Director of the musical department, leader of the band, six or eight 1st violins, ditto 2d, two tenors, two violincellos, three or four double basses, oboe and flageolet, 1st and 2d flutes, 1st and 2d clarionets, 1st and 2d horns, 1st and 2d bassoons, trombone, trumpet and bugle, piano-forte, bells, carillons or small bells, (the three latter not always used,) and kettle-drums, (other instruments are occasionally introduced); music copyist, (he has several assistants,) and an attendant upon the orchestra to lay out the music.

PAINTING-ROOM:- Four principal painters constantly employed, exclusive of accessary principals, subordinates, colour grinders, and attendants.

The Saloon of the Second Covent Garden Theatre shortly after it opened - From 'The Covent Garden Journal' by Joseph Stockdale, published in 1810.DECORATIVE MACHINERY, &C:- The property maker, machinist, master carpenter, six or eight carpenters, and from twenty-four to thirty scenemen. The property-maker and master carpenter, generally, are the joint machinist.

WARDROBE:- Master tailor and keeper of the gentlemen's wardrobe, &c., mistress of the ladies' wardrobe:- both these have numerous constant and occasional assistants. - Dressers, many of both sexes. Each principal performer has a separate dresser.

When new pieces of magnitude are preparing, the extra assistants engaged in the three latter departments are very numerous.

In the HOUSE department:- Treasurer, under ditto, housekeeper, his assistant, about ten money-takers, as many check-takers, (from four to six at the offices for admission,) box-keeper, (his attendants are numerous,) lamplighters, firemen, porters, and watchmen.

Left - The Saloon of the Second Covent Garden Theatre shortly after it opened - From 'The Covent Garden Journal' by Joseph Stockdale, published in 1810.

There are, also, many people employed in other capacities, which, if mentioned, would scarcely be understood, without more detail than can be introduced here.

On particular occasions, such as during the performances of grand spectacles, &c., there are many supernumerary performers engaged by the night; the aggregate salaries of whom frequently amount to 50l. or 60l. per week.'

The above text in quotes (edited) was first published in Volume 1 of the ''Illustrations of the public buildings of London' in 1825.

The Second Covent Garden Theatre - From the book 'London' Edited by Charles Knight and Published in 1843

Above - The Second Covent Garden Theatre - From the book 'London' Edited by Charles Knight and Published in 1843

The Royal Italian Opera House 1847 - 1858

The Second Covent Garden Theatre was reconstructed by Benedict Albano at the end of 1846. Building work began on the 2nd of December, and, considering the extent of the alterations, amazingly it was completed in just 4 months, at a cost of £27,000. The Theatre reopened on the 6th of April 1847 as the Royal Italian Opera House. 'The Builder' reported on the alterations in great detail, along with an engraving of the auditorium, in their 10th of April 1847 edition, which I have transcribed in full below, along with the engraving.

'At the end of November last, we were the first to communicate to the public the precise nature of the alterations that were contemplated in Covent Garden Theatre, embracing, with the concurrence of the official referees, important provisions for the safety of the public in the event of fire. Afterwards, we had the satisfaction of entirely setting at rest, by a personal survey, reports against the stability of the walls, then current; and we now give our readers an elaborate and correct view of the new interior, which has been constructed in a marvellously short period, and with great skill and effect.

Not many weeks ago, as we noted at the time, we had seen the bare inclosing walls standing exposed, from the foundation to the roof, and the old chandelier, under the decorated ceiling, blazing in extraordinary contrast with the hubbub and apparent ruin below. And when we entered the theatre on Tuesday night last, on which occasion it was first opened for operatic performances, the change that had been effected appeared little short of miraculous, although we had watched the progress step by step.

A main point to be dwelt on is, that notwithstanding the rapidity with which the works have been carried on, they have been done in the soundest and most substantial manner, and so as to entitle Mr. Albano, the architect, and all concerned in them, to great praise. A brief record of the proceedings, before speaking of the appearance of the house, will doubtless interest many of our readers. We may premise, that Covent Garden Theatre, as we used to know it, was erected in 1809 by Mr., now Sir Robert, Smirke; the previously existing building having been burnt down. The first stone was laid by the Prince of Wales and the Freemasons on the 31st of December, 1808, and the building was erected and opened within nine months from that day. It is reported that the cost was £150,000.

Turning, then, to the present structure, operations were commenced on the 2nd of December last; but during the week there were only a few workmen employed, in consequence of not having entire possession of the house. The first steps included moving away an immense quantity of theatrical property, which had been stored for years in various parts of the theatre, and was useless. Our grandfathers might have had their earliest theatrical recollections revived, by tricks and scenery belonging to the palmy days of pantomime, which had long slumbered mid dust and cobwebs.

The work was then begun in earnest, by pulling down the whole of the interior of the theatre within the external walls, and the inner foundation walls and arches, to the depth of about 22 feet below the level of the pit corridor. The new foundation walls for carrying the iron columns for the fronts and backs of boxes (thrown considerably farther back), and the walls for the new stone staircases, were commenced about the 21st of December, by bedding Yorkshire landings on a good gravelly soil, with four double courses of footings in brick and cement, five bricks thick at the base. Between the new foundation walls and the old main walls, fire-proof arches were turned in brick and cement over two rooms immediately under the level of the ground floor, and a second tier again above these, under the level of the pit tier of boxes and corridor. When these were completed, the fixing of the stone bases was commenced, to receive iron columns (from 6 to 8 in. in diameter) which were fitted into deep sockets, their caps carrying the timbers of the grand tier, which were secured with bolts going through the caps, and were fastened to the main walls by strong iron ties, passing through the walls with nuts and washers. These caps carried the columns and timbers of the next tier; and, in like manner, columns were repeated for each of the tiers, thus obtaining a continuous bearing from the foundation walls. The columns are 10 feet 4 inches apart in front, and 11 feet 6 inches apart at the back of the boxes. The last tier of columns had flanches cast on them to receive strong story-posts, which were framed into the roof. While the timbers of the upper tier were being framed, the carpenters and joiners were proceeding with their work in the various tiers of boxes and corridors, and framing the timbers and curbs of the ceiling: these are carried by cantilevers framed into the story-posts before mentioned. The ceiling, besides, was hung to the roof with strong iron straps and straining pieces, which gave ground for a foolish report that the new ceiling would bring down the old roof, when, in truth, it is dependant on it only in a very slight degree.

The ribs for the new ceiling, which has a parabolic section, and is elliptical in plan, are formed each of two pieces of plank, cut into proper shape, and lined on the face with ½ inch battens, from 2 to 3 inches wide, nailed to the ribs. This boarding was exposed to great heat for some time, that no shrinkage might afterwards take place, and all chinks were then filled up, and canvass was fastened all over the back of it with a strong mixture of marine glue. These precautions were necessary, because, as the decoration of the ceiling (painted on paper elsewhere, and brought to the house ready at once to be put up) is fastened to the face of the boarding, any shrinkage afterwards would probably split it.

The ceiling, then, being thus made ready for the artists, the painting, gilding, and other decorations (to be afterwards alluded to), and the preparations for hanging the chandelier, were finished, and the scaffolding struck in order to complete the pit and stall seats.

We ought to have said (although it has been already mentioned in this Journal), that when building the foundation walls and cutting the shoulders for the first tier of fire-proof arches, a course of bond timber 12 by 6 and 12 by 9 was found, which, although apparently sound, it was thought necessary to examine. When cut into, it was seen to be entirely rotten at back, and was then taken out in short lengths, and the space filled in with bricks and cement. Other courses were afterwards found in the same rotten condition, and were then removed, to the extent, in all, of about 1,400 feet run. A great number of cills and lintels, to the extent of about 400 feet run, discovered to be in the same state, were also removed, and relieving arches were turned in their stead.

Simultaneously with the progress of the above works a new box-office and entrance were made: the open-arched arcade in Bow street was inclosed, and the adjoining rooms extended flush with the facade of the building. A new stage-entrance and stage-staircase, and a large, handsome retiring room, of the whole width of the stage, under the proscenium, have been formed for the convenience of the musicians, with very ready means of access from the street.

The grand entrance has been materially improved; the ceiling of the hall has been raised and divided into panels, filled in with enriched mouldings, supported on Doric columns, which are formed out of the square pillars that formerly supported the ceiling; and the square ends of the walls, and the lintel over the entrance to the grand staircase, have been removed, and a new soffit formed. The steps at the foot of the grand staircase, which projected into the hall, have been taken up and refixed further in, by reducing a very wide landing; gaining a clear height, by raising the lintel, of 3 ft. 6 in., and 2 ft. 6 in. by the removal of the steps. The ceiling of the staircase being found too high to be well-lighted, was lowered. These alterations are important, as a full view can now be obtained of the columns and ceiling of the grand staircase, whereas before only the margin of the cornice at foot of columns on staircase was visible.

The arched colonnade leading from Bow street to the Piazza, Covent-garden, has been covered in, some of the spaces with doors and some with sashes, and converted into an entrance-hall and crush-room for the pit, - a great convenience. The ceiling is divided into three compartments, with beams and Doric columns; two fire-places have been made in it, and the floor raised. The access to the house here is by a flight of steps right and left. The pit is approached by means of these stairs, and is entered at the back only.

The old gallery-staircase in Bow-street, adjoining the Bedford-avenue, has been pulled down, and the space it occupied formed into a vestibule to the pit crush-room, by turning fire-proof arches over the basement to carry the stone paving. The adjoining room, formerly the treasury, is converted into a cloak and ticket-room, and another room built for the accommodation of the nightly guard.

At the top of the grand staircase, under the floor of the Shakspeare room, where considerable alterations have been made, trusses of timber and iron have been introduced for the purpose of supporting the girders, their bearing being increased by inclosing the arched arcade below. The space the gallery staircase formerly occupied has been floored over and paved level with the saloon and corridor of the grand tier. Two mezzanine floors, one at each end of the grand saloon, have been taken down to give these rooms the same height as the saloon; and by these arrangements have been formed a handsome suite of anti and crush-rooms from the grand staircase, the whole length of the front of the theatre. The arched staircase which was formerly in the saloon, communicating with upper tier of boxes, has been taken away, and the ceiling divided into three compartments, supported by Ionic columns and entablature.

The walls of the saloon, we may mention here, are hung with a green watered paper, with white and gold ornamental dressings to the doors and other openings. The woodwork is painted satin-wood; the columns Sienna marble.

Before terminating our notice of the structural alterations, we must mention one great improvement outside. By an arrangement with the parish, the road in front of the grand entrance has been remodelled, and a tram-way for carriages formed beneath the portico, so that visitors are set down under cover most conveniently.

The royal entrance, in Hart-street, has been considerably improved; as have also the approaches to the Queen's box and the retireing-room...

The Auditorium and Stage of the Italian Opera House, Covent Garden in 1847 - From 'The Builder' of 1847. This Theatre would be destroyed by fire on the 5th of March 1856.

Above - The Auditorium and Stage of the Italian Opera House, Covent Garden in 1847 - From 'The Builder' of 1847.

...We will now again enter the house and see what has been effected there. Our engraving (shown above) will aid us in giving a clear idea of the brilliant appearance it presents. The face of the centre box on the ground tier, is 18 feet 9 in. further from the curtain than it originally was, thus elongating the horse-shoe form to that extent, and rendering the lines of the boxes very beautiful. Each tier above recedes still further, the top-most being 2 feet 3 inches behind the lowest. The stage has been brought forward 9 feet into the house; and the distance from the front of the centre box to the front of the stage, is 59 feet, including the orchestra, which is 12 feet 6 in. deep, and accommodates eighty-five musicians. The greatest width of the internal area, is 62 feet; in front of the orchestra it is 54 feet 8 inches. The greatest height of the house is about 54 feet. The height of the Corinthian columns which form the proscenium, as shewn in the engraving, is 25 feet 10 inches; the diameter 2 feet.

In the old house, it will be remembered, there were four tiers of boxes, including the slips; in the present we have six. The centre portion of the fourth and fifth tiers is appropriated as an amphitheatre for the general public, with seven rows of seats in each, extending backward over the corridor below. Above these, in the sixth tier, is the gallery.

The area of the house is wholly filled with stalls; half being reserved under that name, the other half forming the pit. The seats here are all circular in plan, as they are also in the amphitheatres.

Our engraving shews the boxes divided on every tier by caryatides; and this, when the house is completed, will be the case. At present the caryatides are up on the grand tier only, so that there is a want of apparent support for the ceiling. When these are fixed the effect in this respect will be greatly improved. The spaces between the caryatides are each, for the most part, divided into two boxes, by moveable partitions and drapery, not shewn in the engraving.

The figures, together with all the ornaments in relief on the boxes, proscenium, &c., are moulded of a material called canabic, for which the architect of the theatre, Mr. Albano, has a patent. As its name imports, it is composed of hemp: it is light, takes a sharp impression, and is moreover cheaper than papier mache. It would seem to be very durable, too, and deserves to be better known than it is.

Let us now describe these ornaments somewhat in detail. The sixth tier has been mounted with a large festoon of fruit and flowers, sustained by raised ornaments at equal distances, the cushion (which, as well as all the hangings, is of red damask) being supported by rich gilt moulding; the lower freize is likewise richly gilt. The fifth tier is covered with panels in the Renaissance style, each panel embracing an equal division of the front of the house, with a drop of flowers and shell between them, and rich frieze moulding. The fourth tier is mounted with similar panels, but in the centre of each is a Satyr's head, the expression of which is bold and good. These panels are connected by a continuous stream of flowers, which renders them complete. The frieze moulding is repeated. The third tier is arranged with seventeen panels, the centres of which are oval medallions, all having different subjects, in bold relief, surrounded with oak wreaths and acorns richly mounted, the four seasons, and other subjects, being tastefully executed. The ground of these panels and medallions, and panel ornaments, is a turquoise blue; the figures are finished in flake white, and draperies and other parts in gold. The frieze here is a bold ornament, composed of a large scroll with figures of Pan, &c., and boys with musical instruments introduced. This, surmounted by an egg-and-tongue-moulding in white and gold, completes the tier, with the capping moulding. The second, or grand tier, is mounted with a rich acanthus leaf, with a massive moulding below finished in imitation ormolu. The frieze above the acanthus leaf is of a light character, the design being composed of small figures of Cupid, - some reposing in the centre in a nest, and others flying towards the centre, - the remaining part being filled up with roses and other flowers. The capping moulding is here again of a rich and varied design. It will be seen that, with the exception of the small panels, which are light blue, the whole of the house is white and gold, producing a charming effect.

Colour is reserved for the ceiling, the decorations of which are shewn clearly in our engraving. It may be stated broadly as 80 feet in length, and 60 in width, and was painted by Signori Ferri and Verardi, with the exception of some of the figures, which we believe were executed by M. Zarra. The decorations on the ceiling consist of a large scroll centre-ornament, perforated for the purpose of ventilation, and gilt, and mounted with bold fruit-and- flower-moulding, with egg-and-tongue, and other small members, so as to form five different margins, which are embraced on the outer edge by eight massive shields, and again are connected with lines of golden rope, running to the outer circle of the ceiling. There are four groups, connected by garlands. The group nearest to the proscenium represents Music and her many attributes, with Infant Genius. Lyrical Tragedy occupies the centre of the house. On the right is Comedy; on the left, Painting and Sculpture, with a metaphysical presentment of Art. The exterior architectural border is in high relief, and embraces four divisions - Astronomy, Mechanics, Trade, and Commerce, environed by figures and decorations in lower relief. Other groups represent the Seasons; and the names of celebrated composers are given in tablets. The painted ceiling terminates on a very bold egg-moulding, which is gilt, and forms also the cornice of the top tier of boxes.

In the proscenium ceiling, the same egg-moulding is repeated, and formed into margins with a frieze, consisting of birds and squirrels in high relief, gilt. This is introduced again in the upper and lower edge of ceiling; the centre part is formed into smaller panels by moulding, the centres of which are filled with ornamental paintings. In the centre are the royal arms. The columns, with their capitals, are also white and gold. The spandrel above contains on one side a figure representing Britannia, and on the other a figure of Italy, on gold backgrounds.

The front of the boxes, it may be observed, swells out at the foot, which, besides affording convenience to the occupants, materially aids the effect by reflecting the light. The form of the proscenium too, is exceedingly good, and displays very excellent taste.

The chandelier is of large size, and would of itself light the house sufficiently; there are, however, in addition, branches for wax candles, projecting from the front of the grand tier and second tier.

The number of persons who may be seated in the house may be stated as follows:- There are eight proscenium boxes, thirty in the pit tier, thirty-four in the grand tier, thirty-four in the third tier, twenty-eight in the fourth tier, twenty-eight in the fifth tier, and twenty-eight in the sixth tier, or 190 in all.

Allowing six persons to a box, these will seat commodiously 1,140
The stalls hold 256
The pit 203
The amphitheatres 148 each 296
The gallery 300
Making in the whole 2,255
Exclusive of standing room.
Judging, however, from the number of persons in many of the boxes on Tuesday night, this may be considered under the mark.

The means of properly heating and ventilating the house appear to have received due attention. Hot-air stoves are fitted up under the pit stalls, with flues to conduct the warmed air over the house; and every gas-lamp in the corridors has a ventilating-pipe above it. On these, and some other points, however, we reserve our opinion, not venturing to form one hastily. For the extinguishing of fire, should it occur, mains, supplied from cisterns in the upper part of the house, are provided, with cocks and hose on each tier.

As regards the conveyance of sound, we are disposed to consider the new opera-house singularly successful. During the performance we visited every part of the house, and found in every place that the lowest sound from the stage was distinctly audible. The boxes are all lined with wood; the walls of the corridors, the Queen's entrance, and the grand staircase are rendered with Martin's patent cement.

As to the cost, concerning which some inquiries have been made of us, it is impossible to speak positively; the nature of the works precluded specific contracts, and the accounts have not yet been made up. £40,000 will probably not cover it.

Mr. Albano richly deserves all the praise that can be offered to him. During the progress of the works he has never left the spot, and has himself, as we are informed, designed and arranged the whole, whether structural or decorative. He has earned for himself a good reputation both as a constructor and an artist. The whole of the decorations,with the exception of the ceiling before mentioned, were ably executed under his direction, by Mr. Ponsonby, of the Regent's-circus. It is hardly necessary to say that all the Canabic ornaments were painted and gilt while the other works were being proceeded with, and were put up afterwards without any loss of time. The builder employed was Mr. Holland.'

The above text in quotes was first published in 'The Builder', 10th April 1847.

Article on the new Royal Box at the Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden, from the Illustrated London News of July 29th 1848. Click for full article and enlarged image.An article on the new Royal Box at the Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden (shown right) from the Illustrated London News of July 29th 1848 can be seen here along with an enlarged image.

Scene from The New Ballet of "Les Amazons," At Covent Garden Theatre - From The Illustrated London News of October 14th 1848. Click to see article and enlarged image.A Scene from The New Ballet of "Les Amazons," at the Covent Garden Theatre, from The Illustrated London News of October 14th 1848 can be seen left and enlarged here with an article about the production.

Despite all the expense and major reconstruction of the Theatre in 1847 however, tragedy struck only 9 years later on the 5th of March 1856 when the Theatre was again destroyed by fire. However, the Theatre was then rebuilt again, and reopened in 1858, and happily this Theatre still exists today, see details below.

The Third and Present Theatre 1858 - Present

The Covent Garden Theatre on its Opening - From the Illustrated London News, May the 15th 1858

Above - The Covent Garden Theatre on its Opening - From the Illustrated London News, May the 15th 1858, New York Public Library Digital Collections.

The Royal Oera House, Covent Garden, looking down Bow Street towards the Strand in October 2006 - Photo M.L.The Third and Present Theatre on the site was designed by Sir Edward M. Barry and built by Frederick Gye in just six months, incorporating the statues and reliefs from the previous building.

Right - The Royal Oera House, Covent Garden, looking down Bow Street towards the Strand in October 2006 - Photo M.

This Theatre, on a slightly enlarged site, was positioned at a new angle, East West rather than North South as before, and opened as the Royal Italian Opera House on the 15th of May 1858 with a production of 'Les Huguenots' by Meyerbeer.

Apart from some reconstruction of the auditorium over the years, involving removing the Amphitheater boxes and removing most of the boxes in two tiers, the auditorium remains in much the same form as when it opened. Originally the Theatre held 1,897 but today the capacity is 2,268. There was some reconstruction in 1884 however, when the Theatre was converted by Frank Matcham for Circus use for William Holland, see below, and this was also the first time that Electric Lighting had been used in this Theatre. The Theatre reverted back to Theatrical and Opera use again the following Spring but would dabble with Circus on furthur occasions. Of course today it is known for Opera and Ballet almost exclusively as the Royal Opera House, more on this below, but is sometimes host to major Televised Award Ceremonies such as the BAFTAs and the Olivier Awards.

Holland's Grand Circus of 1884

William Holland took over the Theatre in 1884 and employed Frank Matcham to convert it for Circus use, it reopened as Holland's Grand Circus on Boxing Day, December the 26th 1884. The ERA reported on the conversion in their 20th of December 1884 edition saying:- 'The works at Covent-garden Theatre in connection with Mr Holland's grand circus are making rapid and satisfactory progress, and the circus will be ready to open on Boxing Day. A ring has been formed on the stage level, the centre being in a line with the proscenium opening. Raised seats, constructed from the ring to the dress circle, will comprise the pit (with upholstered seats) and five rows of luxurious stalls, all having a clear and uninterrupted view of the ring. Stabling for thirty-eight horses and ponies is being constructed at the rear of the stage. These stables will be open to the public in the intervals of the performance. A handsome entrance to the ring, with orchestra over for sixty performers, is also erected, and the whole will form one of the grandest circuses ever constructed. Messrs James Shoolbred and Co. are carrying out the building, decorations, and upholstery, from plans by and under the superintendence of Mr Frank Matcham, architect.' - The ERA 20th of December 1884.

An Advertisement carried in the ERA for William Holland's Grand Circus at the Theatre Royal Covent Garden in December 1884.Holland's Grand Circus opened with a Grand Circus Performance with a multitude of performers, and was then followed by the Pantomime 'St George and the Dragon' on Boxing Day, December the 26th 1884. The ERA reported on the opening in their 27th of December 1884 edition saying:- 'Visitors to Covent-garden on Boxing Day must have been astonished at the transformation in the opera house effected by Mr William Holland since he has had possession.

Right - An Advertisement carried in the ERA for William Holland's Grand Circus at the Theatre Royal Covent Garden in December 1884.

In a similar position to that usually occupied by the orchestra when the promenade concerts are given, there is now a circus not only novel in construction, but having advantages not found in other circuses. For example, instead of dust flying in the faces of spectators while the performance is going on, the whole of the area is fitted with cocoa-nut matting four inches in thickness, and weighing over two tons. This entirely obviates any inconvenience to the audience, and, is beautifully clean and noiseless.

Mr Holland endeavoured during his tour on the Continent to procure some of the greatest novelties to introduce in combination with the familiar items of the circus, and his plan will remind foreign visitors of the brilliant establishments in Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and St. Petersburg.

Remembering the season, Mr Holland has taken care to provide a pantomime entirely performed by children. Two hundred of these youthful pantomimists have been drilled by M. A. Bertrand, their stage business being taught them by Mr Clarance Holt.

The lighting and decoration of the theatre will be heartily appreciated by the audience. The fullest use is made of the electric light, so as to make the entertainments attractive, and the fittings of the theatre, by Messrs Shoolbred and Co., are elegant.

The pantomime is the grand old English subject of St. George and the Dragon; or, the Seven Champions of Christendom, and this excellent theme affords the author, Mr A. Henry, opportunities for spectacular effect, especially in the introduction of one hundred suits of magnificent armour. There will be found every kind of entertainment possible; performing elephants, acrobats, wire dancers, and feats of horsemanship of the most brilliant kind by equestrians fined throughout Europe, and it was evident that Mr. Holland's patrons anticipated a very attractive entertainment, for long before the doors opened the house was besieged with an 'eager crowd. In fact, had the accommodation of Covent-garden been twice as great, the house could have been filled.

A shout of applause greeted the National Anthem, when punctually at two o'clock the entertainment began. Then. M. Tourniaire, from the Cirque d'Hiver, Paris, gave his trick act, and there was a laughable comic scene with the clowns. The acrobatic performances of Les Petites Frres Martinetti displayed remarkable talent on the part of these youthful artists, who were greatly applauded. Mdlle. Lavinia was rather unfortunate, for, to begin with, her horse was restive and difficult to manage, and the lady, probably being rather nervous, had no less than six falls, once tumbling over the barrier; but Mdlle. Lavinia, nothing daunted by her mishap, flung herself once more upon her steed, and finished her performance so as to win the cordial and sympathetic applause of the audience. The Brothers Gilleno, on the horizontal bar, not only delighted all who saw them by their agility; but the grotesque drollery with which their feats were accomplished added greatly to the effect. They are admirable performers. Nothing better was seen in the circle than the brilliant and daring horsemanship of Hernandez, whose somersault throwing, backward and forward, and astonishing leaps from the circus to the bareback of the steed, quite electrified the spectators. The clown, George Footitt, an extraordinary acrobat, was particularly successful in this scene. Elephants are always popular, and such a clever one as that introduced by Mr A. Forepaugh, jun., is likely to be a great draw. Dressed as a clown he looks extremely comic, and seems to comprehend every word that is said-to him. Indeed, he almost talks himself, for when a question is put to him he replies in such comic little squeaks that they are excessively funny: This elephant has a host of tricks. He indulges in a game of see-saw, and has a swing, plays the organ, and is also a very convivial fellow, for his pranks at the supper-table caused roars of laughter. Madame Cruau, from the Cirque Rentz, Berlin, was one of the most successful artistes of the day. She is wonderfully graceful and quick in her movements, and there is boldness and variety in everything she achieves. Madame Cruau made an excellent impression. The singing jester; Harry Rickards, in this scene gave a patriotic song with allusions to events of the day.

Programme for 'Grand Circus' at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden in 1890 - Click to see entire Programme enlarged.The comic entree of the Clown Felix with his quaint monkey "Ally Sloper " was the signal for hearty merriment, monkey and man being most cordially greeted. Madame Oceana, from the Grand Hippodrome, Paris, immediately upon her appearance attracted attention by the grace and fine proportions of her splendid figure. She gave a performance upon the invisible wire, and displayed to great advantage the elegance of her style of performance, which was as picturesque as if the lady had floated in air or upon the bosom of a lake. Madame Oceana, probably because there was hardly time, did not remain long upon the wire, but she convinced the audience in that brief period that her accomplishments are of the first class, and her appearance could hardly be more attractive.

Right - A Programme for 'A Grand Circus' at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden in 1890 - Click to see entire Programme enlarged.

Madame Oceana, besides her performance on the wire, introduced several sleight-of-hand tricks, and performed them with the greatest dexterity and ease. The great jockey act of Mr George Batty was very effective, and was rewarded with enthusiastic applause. The Chiesi Troupe, eight in number (male and female), gave an entertainment of a superior kind. Their acrobatic feats were wonderfully good. "The Princess Lilian" is an equestrian monkey who rivals her human companions in all kinds of feats on horseback.

After these excellent scenes in the circle the pantomime, St. George and the Dragon; or, the Seven Champions of Christendom concluded the afternoon brilliantly. We must warmly compliment Mr A. Henry upon the talent he has shown in adapting the subject for the circus. He has written some smart lines referring to topics of the day, and among other subjects he alluded gracefully to the change of the Royal Italian Opera to a circus, suggesting that in the spring again opera would be in the ascendant...'

The review then went on to praise the Pantomime and summed up by saying, 'Mr William Holland is to be congratulated. He has evidently done his utmost to secure the favour of the public, and there is every probability that the novel and excellent entertainment he has prepared will prove attractive, and that crowds will reward his enterprise. The appearance of the theatre, crowded, as it was, to the very roof, was most exhilarating, and promised well for the future. '

The above text in quotes (edited) was first published in the ERA, 27th of December 1884.

The Royal Opera House Today

The Stage of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden in 1901 - From 'Modern Opera Houses and Theatres' by Edwin O Sachs, and held at the Library of the Technical University (TU) in Delft - Kindly sent in by John Otto.

Above - The Stage of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden in 1901 - From 'Modern Opera Houses and Theatres' by Edwin O Sachs, and held at the Library of the Technical University (TU) in Delft - Kindly sent in by John Otto.

Floral Street elevation of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, showing the bridge over the street to more offices, and the stage door.The Theatre was extended rearwards in 1933 to house new dressing rooms and offices, and then again in 1982 when, after the entire plot of land was acquired from the sell off of Covent Garden Market in the 1970s, the building was extended even further back towards James Street.

In 1999 a major injection of cash in the form of Lottery funding of £50m gave the Theatre the chance to move into the 21st century in a big way. The building now incorporates the Floral Hall, next door, and its footprint now extends to Bow Street, Russell Street, the Piazza, James Street and Floral Street.

Right - The Floral Street elevation of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, showing the bridge over the street to more offices, and the stage door.

The Auditorium was completely restored and looks absolutely fantastic, like walking into a brand new Victorian Theatre, see images below. The stalls were re-raked to accommodate the new stage, and the stage itself and fly tower were completely demolished and rebuilt. A new box office was added, along with a cafe, restaurant, and shops. And a new rehearsal space large enough to house complete sets was added next door with the added advantage of becoming a second performance space too.

Today the Theatre is known for Opera and Ballet almost exclusively as the Royal Opera House, but it is also sometimes used to host major Televised Award Ceremonies such as the BAFTAs and the Olivier Awards.

The third Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, Circa 1897, (now the Royal Opera House) - Courtesy Peter Williams  - Click to Enlarge

Above - The Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, and Floral Hall, looking up Bow Street Circa 1897 - From "The Queen's London" Part 5 of 12 (32 Photographic Views for 6d) by Cassell & Company, Circa 1897 - Courtesy Peter Williams - Compare this view with the same view in 2006 below. - Click to Enlarge.

The Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, and Floral Hall, looking up Bow Street in October 2006 - Photo M.L. - Click to Enlarge

Above - The Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, and Floral Hall, looking up Bow Street in October 2006 - Photo M.L. - Compare this view with the same view in 1897 above. - Click to Enlarge.

The wonderful restored auditorium of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden

Above - The wonderful restored auditorium of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden

The wonderful restored auditorium of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden

Above - The wonderful restored auditorium of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden

A 1970s / 80s Seating Plan for the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden

Above - A 1970s / 80s Seating Plan for the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden

A visit to this vast Opera House and its new adjoining facilities is an absolute must for anyone interested in Theatre architecture, let alone, lovers of Opera and Ballet. It really is the finest Theatre in the country and although the recent lottery funding caused a great deal of discussion on whether this was money well spent on such a building, I can't believe that anyone who walked into it's magnificent auditorium today could possibly hold onto that view.

You may also like to visit the The Royal Opera House Collections Online Here.

The new Bow Street additions to the Royal Opera House which were completed in 1999, here photographed in October 2006 M.L.

Above - The new Bow Street additions to the Royal Opera House which were completed in 1999, here photographed in October 2006 M.L.

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