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Dedicated to Arthur Lloyd, 1839 - 1904.

Celebrating Twenty Years Online 2001 - 2021

Thirty Three Years in Tasmania and Victoria

By George Thomas Lloyd

Dedication - Preface - Contents - See also details for Charles Jeffreys here

A Photograph of George Lloyd taken by Chuck Thomas Foster George Thomas Lloyd, brother of Horatio Lloyd and Uncle of Arthur Lloyd, was born in 1809. When he was just ten years old he sailed with his uncle Charles Jeffreys to Van Diemen's Land, now Tasmania, on the ship the Saracen on the 25th of December 1819. They arrived in Hobart Town on the 24th of April 1820.

After many years living in Tasmania and Australia George wrote a book about the voyage and his experiences there called "Thirty-Three Years in Tasmania and Victoria."

Right - A Photograph of George Lloyd taken by Chuck Thomas Foster and published in 1872, the year after George Lloyd died, as part of a photographic series entitled 'Early colonists and settlers of Victoria' - Held at the Victoria State Library in Australia - Courtesy Vivienne Rybarczyk, GG Granddaughter of George Thomas Lloyd.

I have transcribed the Dedication, Preface, and Contents on this page, with some extra details and names mentioned in some sections, but the whole book, first published in 1862, has now been digitised by Google Books and can be found online here.

Click here for George Lloyd's Obituary.



London, Jan. 1, 1862.

My Dear Friend.

Click the cover to read the whole book at Google BooksIn publishing this humble specimen of authorship, I wish distinctly to impress on the minds of those who may kindly honour me with its perusal, that I do not attempt to arrogate for it the term useful, so far as statistical information is concerned, but rather to record the march of events and general Position of Tasmania and Victoria in earlier times, than those of which more able contemporaries have written.

In the relation of these recollections of long-bygone days, my object has been throughout, studiously to adhere to truth; both, so far as I can speak from personal observation, and also from the fact that my information on those matters which occurred previously to my arrival in 1820 - or that I could not truthfully register as having witnessed individually - are nevertheless derived from such authentic sources, that I have no hesitation in committing them to the printer's hands.

To you, then, one of my oldest and most valued Tasmanian friends, whom long residence in that beautiful and sunny clime will have made conversant with most things that are herein recorded, I have much pride and pleasure in dedicating these reminiscences.

Faithfully yours,

To the Hon. William DEGRAVES, M.L.C., Melbourne.


A Photograph of George Lloyd taken in 1860 when he was 52, and two years before his book was published - Held at the Victoria State Library in Australia - Courtesy Vivienne Rybarczyk, GG Granddaughter of George Thomas Lloyd.ENCOURAGED in my desire to publish these Recollections, by the advice and opinion of several well-informed gentlemen, who have perused portions of them in manuscript and pronounced them both amusing and instructive, I have much pleasure in submitting the Work to the reading public, with the hope that they may arrive at the same conclusion.

Right - A Photograph of George Lloyd taken in 1860 when he was 52, and two years before his book was published - Held at the Victoria State Library in Australia - Courtesy Vivienne Rybarczyk, GG Granddaughter of George Thomas Lloyd.

I have frequently heard it remarked that the works upon Tasmania and Australia, generally speaking - although unquestionably replete with useful matter - were not of a nature calculated to attract the attention of persons unconnected with the Colonies. With a view, therefore, possibly to create in their minds some degree of interest for those beautiful and important regions, I have studiously avoided entering upon any dry elaborate description of Country, Statistics, &c., preferring to draw upon memory for the relation of matter, which I trust will afford gratification to those who may peruse it.

To render this Work generally useful as well as entertaining, I have, by arrangement with Messrs. Letts, Son, & Co., adopted their very valuable and comprehensive Emigration Map, which includes the latest Geographical corrections and Notes.

G. T. L.
January, 1862.



Departure of Writer for Van Diemen's Land—Incidents at the
Isle of Bona Vista—Graceless Conduct of the Captain—Taken
Prisoner — Arrival in Van Diemen's Land — Appearance of
Hobart Town in 1820—Stock-rearing preferable to Farming.


Lake of Pittwater—Fish in the Lake—Author's early Life in
Tasmania—Destruction of Farm-house—Frogmore in the Antipodes—
Assigned Convict Servants—Robberies, numbers of
Undetected—Detection and Capture of Shepherd stealing isheep—Wool of no value


Van Diemen's Land, brief Historical Notes of—Geographical
Errors in Foreign Addresses — Lieutenant Flinders, unjust
treatment of, and his Imprisonment at Isle of France—Trees
and Timber—Proportion of available Land — Locusts and
Manna—Beauty and Peculiarities of Native Cherry—Mineral
Resources of Van Diemen's Land—Its Climate—Appearance
on First Arrival—River Denvent—Mount Wellington—Mr.
Degraves—Watering the city of Hobart Town—River Tamar—
Launceston—George Town—Stage Coaches—Telegraphic Communication—
Aborigines, Manners, Habits, and Customs of—
Opossums, Destructive Character of


Aborigines tracing Footprints—Their first Interview with the Commandant—
Artful system of Plunder—Discovered with stolen Potatoes

CHAPTER V. Page 61

Notes on natural Productions—Rarity of Atmosphere—Fish—
Kangaroo—Narrative of a Search in London for—Various Kinds
of—Power of Boomah—Kangaroo Hat—Doe Kangaroo specially
favoured by Providence—A Joey tamed—Opossum and Bandicoot—
Quadrupeds of Van Diemen's Land—The Dasyrus or
Devil—Tiger, so called—Animals, none found dangerous to
Man—Goanna—Oyster-shells, large Deposit accounted for—
The Feathered Tribe—Snake ditto—Narrative of an Encounter
with one—Animal Magnetism of, and Mina birds—Lady Franklin's
liberality for destroying Snakes—Bite of snake cured by a
Mother's devotion—Their prolific nature—Man bitten and cured —
Comparison between things of old and new countries—Native-
born Population—Home-sick Colonists

CHAPTER VI. Page 100

Narrative of a Trip through the Bush in search of available Land —
Alarm of Party—Scout sent out to reconnoitre—Chased by
natives —The Result — Aborigines, Danger from, and Ill treatment of
—M issionary Society—Discovery of good Country —
Joy of new Landed Proprietors—Drawing Lots for choice of
Land—Dispute as to Homeward Route—Damper-making—
Kangaroo hunt

Names of People mentioned on the trip were:

Captain Jeffreys (Usually just called the Captain or Captain Jeffrey - Leader of the group)
Mr. Stanmore (Who related the story to the Author.)
Mr. Stanmore (Well versed in cunning Bush Stratergy.)
Patrick Hart, also called Gab and Paddy (Irish sailor and the son of Mr. Erin - Friend of Author)
Mr. Erin (Father of Pat Hart)
Mr. Lakeland
Willie Fleming
Tammas Henderson
Jemmy Dax (Cook)
Mr. Linnaeus, also called Lynnot
Mr. Woolsack (Irish Bushman, near relation of the Author)


Advice in the selection of Lands in new Countries—Trip through
the Bush resumed homeward—Danger of Captain of Party, &c. —
Travellers surprised by the Blacks—Halt to smoke—Bush
Tea—Spirited view of their Position by Hart—Hunters sent
out—Pole for Drying Clothes—Humorous conduct of Hart in
reference to — Success of Hunters—Flesh of Wombat—Two
misty Days—Party arrive at Brown Mountain and discover
smoke rising from a suspicious Valley—Scout goes in advance
of Party, &c.—Their Alarm—Bushrangers—Hart's Dispute
with them—Their Oath and sworn Motto—Party arrive in Hoobart
Town and their meeting at Surveyor's Office, and Reunion at
the Macquarie Hotel

Names of Bush Rangers met on return from the Bush:
Captain Brady (Leader)
Mr. McCabe (Brady's Lieutenant)


Friends in Bush Trip proceed to settle on their Land—Lecture on
the art of Bullock-driving—Upsetting of Dray—A new Farm—
Settler's Life not always an enviable one—Treatment of Convicts
at the Penal Settlement—Seizure of Boat by Convicts at
Macquarie Harbour—Troops in pursuit of runaway Prisoners—
Lost—Daring Offer to convey Despatches—Bushrangers land
at South Arm—Alarm of Settlers—Brady's system of Attack—
Defeated—His respect for females, and general character—
Officer and Military Detachment quartered at Sorell Town—
Message from Brady to Officer — Troops go in pursuit of
Bushrangers—Visit of latter to Norfolk Farm—Gentlemen
captives are marched to Sorell Town—Bushrangers surprise
and tie the Grenadiers in the Gaol—Gentlemen imprisoned—
Surgeon conceals himself in a Flour-bin—The Officer is
wounded—Chief Constable escapes—Incarceration of Captain
Glover—Sentinel at gate—Visit of Captain Walker to the
Gaol, and Release of the Captives—Gentlemen return to Norfolk
Farm— Brady in Condemned Cell — Appointment of
wounded Lieutenant to office

Names of people mentioned in this chapter:

The Bushrangers Gang, (14 in all) whose 'lawless career' lasted nearly two years, and whose slogan was :"Death or Liberty":
Captain Brady (Leader of the Bushrangers)
Mr. McCabe (Brady's Lieutenant)
Mr. Murphy
Mr. McCabe

Others: Mr. C___ Friend of the Author
Mr. R. Bethune
Mr. W. A. Bethune
Lieutenant Gunn - Retired from East India Company and charged with the capture of Brady and Company.
Peggy Donovan - Cook
Captain Billy Bunster
Doctor Garrett - Government Surgeon
Chief Constable Laing
Jemmy Mc Ara - Blacksmith
Captain Glover - Magistrate
Captain Walker - Merchant
Colonel Arthur - Governor
Tommy Birch - Native Aborigine
Mr. Evans - Deputy Surveyor General
Mr. Lynnot - Bullock guiding pupil
Mr. Jehu - Proffesional Cockney Bullock Driver
Gatenbys, Taylors, Bayles, and Allisons, settlers of the Macquarie River- Friends of the Author
Lieutenant Cuthbertson - Commandant of military detachment appointed to watch the progress of escaped convicts
Mr. Gellibrand - Farm owner
Mr. Taylor - Scotish Farm Owner

CHAPTER IX. Page 213

Aborigines alarm the Colonists—Grand Demonstration against
them—Colonel Arthur, governor—Cordon formed across the
Country for the Capture of Natives—Amusing Incidents in connection
with Author's part in it—Reward to Mr. Walpole for
capturing two Natives—Expense, Failure, and Benefit of Cordon
to Settlers—Dialogue between two Contractors in reference
thereto—Suceess of Mr. G. A. Robinson in conciliating the
Aborigines—The Natives arc sent to Flinders's Island—Their
Number in 1803—Mr. Robinson insufficiently rewarded—His
own Narrative

Names of people mentioned in this chapter:

Sir George Arthur / Colonel Arthur - Governor of Tasmania
Mickey O'Brian - Soldier of the line
Mr. Rice - Old Man and Guide
Tommy Roundhead - Cook
Mr. Rees - Cottage owner and German Farmer and his wife
Tom Larkins - Cockney Prisoner
Mr. Lunnaner - Prisoner
Giles Rogers - Prisoner
Mr. Walpole - Officer
Mr. G. A. Robinson - Architect and Builder at Hobart Town and planned eradicator of natives
Dr. Walsh - Doctor on Flinders's Island where the Aborigines were settled
Lord Glenelg
Sir George Gipps
Captain Harvey - Of the Nimrod
Manalagane - Chieftain of Robinson's Black Companions
Thomas Brune - Aboriginal youth on Flinders's island
Mr. Dove - Religious teacher on Flinders's island
Mr. Clark - Teacher of farming on Flinders's island

CHAPTER X. Page . 257

Brief review of Prison Discipline—Comparison between French and
English Laws—-After-treatment of Delinquents—Lenient Treatment
of Prisoners at Norfolk Island—Colonists suffered
severely from systematic Robberies—Pittwater infested with
Thieves above other districts—Exciting Adventures at Middle
Hill—Chase, Shepherd versus Outlaw—Tale of Horror—Population
of Van Diemen's Land — Lawrenny, Estate of Mr.
Edward Lord—Author's happy Visit there, and its unfortunate

Names of people mentioned in this chapter:

Colonel Jebb - Captain of Military detachment at Sorell Town
Mr. Pearson - Bush Ranger
Mr. Edward Carr - Manager of Van Diemen's Land agricultural Company
Jack Hall - Shepherd
Mr. Laing - Chief Constable
Mr. Evans - Welsh Soldier
Mr. Pitt - Chief Constable of Hobart Town
Captain Jeffreys - Author's Uncle - Now deceased
Charley Routley - Murderer of Pretty Jack
Pretty Jack - Murdered
Jeffries - Convict
O'Brian - Convict

CHAPTER XI. Page 286

Remarks upon Social Condition of Van Diemen's Land in early
days—Appointment of Poor Men as Governors to new Colonies
not advantageous—Progress of political feeling in the Colony—
Races—Horses of Van Diemen's Land—Mr. Mezger—Theatricals,
and Mr. John Philip Deane—Disparity of sexes in Van
Diemen's Land

Names of people mentioned in this chapter:

Colonel S
Colonel Arthur
Judge Advocate
Mr. Abbott
Major Bell - 48th Regiment
Messrs A. F. Kemp
Captain Read
Jack Eddington
Captain Swanston
Mr. Mezger - From Vaterland
Mr. John Phillip Deane - Established concerts, balls and theatrical representations with his family at the Argyll Rooms around 1832
Colonel Geils - Racehorse importer
Mr. W. C. Wentworth - Of Sydney
Dr. Ross
Mr. Melville
Mr. Edward Lord (senior) - Lieutenant of Marines and one of the earliest settlers, and Nephew of Sir John Owen
Mrs. E. Lord - Edward Lord (senior's) wife
John Lord - Elder son of Edward Lord (senior) - Drowned in the Derwent river aged 20
Edward Lord - Younger son of Edward Lord (senior)
Mr. Ladds - Superintendent
Mr. McPherson


Correspondence between Mr. Batman and the Governor of
Tasmania in reference to Port Phillip in 1833—Opinions of
Mr. J. T. Giellibrand—His practical Usefulness in colonizing
Australia Felix—Right of Aborigines to sell Land—Association
formed—Indenture of Agreement—Mr. Batman's departure
with a general outfit—Sketch of the Company's first Doings at
Port Phillip

Names of people mentioned in this chapter:

John Batman - Expedition and Colinisation of Port Philip
Messrs. Westgarth & Samuel Sidney - Writers on Victoria
Mr. West - Writer on Van Diemen's Land
Colonel Arthur - Gouviner of Van Daimen's Land
Mr. Gellibrand & John Batman - Wrote letter to government of N.S.W in 1827 about 'civilizing' the natives of Australia

Associates of John Batman regarding the colonisation of Port Phillip:
Charles Swanston,
Thomas Bannister,
James Simposn,
Joseph Tice Gellibrand,
J. & W. Robertson,
Henry Arthur,
H. Wedge,
J. Sinclair,
J. T. Collicott,
Anthony Cotterell,
W. G. Sams,
Micheal Connolly,
George Mercer, Esquires.

Martin - The Wabgan Missionary at Hobart Town
Sir Thomas Mitchell - Named Port Philip and Victoria 'Australia Felix'
Mr. Gelibrand - Barrister by proffesion

Chiefs of Tribes of Ditigalla & Geelong:
Jugajaga Jugajaga, Cooloolook Bungarie, Yangan Mowship, Mommamala.

Wooloomooloo - Chief interpreter for John Batman
John Montague - Wrote letter to John Batman 3rd July 1835

Govener Collins - First occupation of the country in 1803 with:
Messrs Hovell & Hume & Captain Wright

Mr. Henty
Mr.Ferguson - Led advance Guard
Kardinia - 3rd betrothed Loobra of Jagajaga


Effect of the re-colonization of Port Phillip on the Tasmanian
Community—Enterprising Association most illiberally rewarded —
Their Letters to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, and
Replies thereto—Instructions for the Treatment of the Natives —
Original Settlement of Port Phillip by Colonel Collins—
Discovery of Buckley with the Savages—Australia Felix, why
so called—Discovery of Gold matter of Regret—Anecdote of
Gold-finding — Results to Miners — Nature and Extent of
Fortunes made at the Diggings—Gentlemen Diggers, Absurdity
of—Coroner's Inquest upon one—Exciting circumstance at
Mount Alexander—Diggers as a rule not reckless—Lucky
Gold-miners and Servant Maids


Advice to Emigrants—Estimate of Cost, &c. of a Sheep Station—
Advice to Agricultural Labourers—Agricultural Pursuits-
Australian Colonies a field for all classes of Emigrants—Self-
reliance necessary to Success—Prodigal Sons—Vineyards a
good Speculation — Squatters and Land-sellers — Value of
Squatters' Produce to progress of Victoria—Land-sales Mania —
Monetary Panics—The Colonies most advantageous for
Immigrants—Home Truths to Emigrants of Helpless stamp

CHAPTER XV. Page 387

Wherein Victoria differs from Tasmania—Area and Description of
Lands — Their depasturing and agricultural Capabilities—
Kangaroo Grass, its luxuriance and necessity of preserving the
seed of—Dews in early days—Supply of Water and singular
facts in reference thereto—Lakes Korangamyte, Colac, and
Purrambete — Mirage — Salt Lagoons — Volcanic nature of
Country—Warrian Hills—Stony Rises—Mount Parndon—
Messrs. Manifold—Narrative of a Trip through the Mallee
Scrub—Rivers—Fish—Game—Turkey Bustard, and native
mode of Catching—A Swan Feast—Birds—Beautiful Ibis—
Dr. Liechardt lost—Spirited Explorers of Australia


Author's Observation, and Arrival at Point Henry, Geelong—
Earthquake—Shooting for fresh Provisions—Anecdote of Hawk
Pie—Annoyance from the nocturnal visits of Dingoes—Number
of Brushes nailed to a Tree—Hunting Dingoes with Hounds—
Poisoning—Dog poisoned with Strychnine and cured—Natives
and Mutton Cutlets—Toothache, Cognac, and Diarrhoea—
Search for Stations and Arrival of Party—Discovery of Game —
Recipe for making a Choice Dish—First Chase after
Kangaroo without Dogs


Victoria in 1835 compared with 1858—Squatters Desire to
increase their Flocks, not always prudent—Diseases of Sheep—
Melting down—Monied Emigrants—Moral and Social Condition
of Victoria—Educational Questions—Modest Strictures upon
the remarks of a clever Author, in defence of brother Colonists —
Difficult Position of Colonial Governors — Legislative
Arrangements—Home Officials, erroneous Views of


Gradual Disappearance of Aborigines—Attempt to civilize them,
in certain positions useless—Their routine of Duties at the
Mission Station and Dislike to Labour—Taught to ridicule their
spiritual Mentors—Facts in reference to their Depopulation—
Believe they become White People—Wounded native left on
Author's Premises on a dark night—Their mode of treating
Invalids—Sable Midwives and Treatment of Babies—A Native
Orator—The Bunyip—Comparative Strength of Aborigines
with Men of other Countries—Their Peculiarities, Mode of
Warfare, and Punishment of Delinquents—The probable Source
from which Australia derived its Black Population


Melbourne—Geelong—Its Environs and general Advantages—
Climate of Victoria—Distances of Countries, Towns, &c.—
Squatter, why so called—Melting Sheep, Cattle, and Swine for
their fat—Value of the two former—Increase in value, resulting
from Immigration

CHAPTER XX. Page 483

Narrative of the Loss of Messrs. Gellibrand and Hesse


Comparisons in reference to Disappointment of Returned Colonists

APPENDIX. Page 497

Population—Immigration and Emigration—Births and Deaths-
Live Stock—Exports—Squatting Runs and Pastoral Licences —
Purchase of Land—Land Sold to Squatters—Prices of Town,
Suburban, and Country Land—Counties and Districts—Bread,
its Demand and Supply—Supply of Rice—Principal Crops—
Landholders—Miscellaneous Returns

I have printed the Dedication, Preface, and Contents here, with some extra details and names mentioned in some sections, but the whole book, first published in 1862, has now been digitised by Google Books and can be found online here.

Click here for George Lloyd's Obituary.

Charles Jeffreys

Charles Jeffreys, Horatio and George Lloyd's Uncle, and Great Uncle of Arthur Lloyd, was a naval officer and author, and was born on 16 October 1782 at Cowes, Isle of Wight, England, the son of Ninian and Mary Jeffreys. He joined the navy at 11 and served as midshipman in various ships before his passing certificate as lieutenant was issued by the Admiralty in August 1803. He was commissioned lieutenant in March 1805. In August 1810 at Lambeth, Surrey, he married Jane Gill of London. In January 1814 he arrived with her at Port Jackson in the brig Kangaroo.

Jeffreys's first commission was to transport convicts and other passengers in the Kangaroo from Port Jackson to the Derwent. After an unsuccessful attempt in May 1814 he finally sailed for the Derwent in August and arrived at Hobart Town in October. Instructed to return to Port Jackson by way of Port Dalrymple to collect a cargo of wheat Jeffreys travelled overland, but though the Kangaroo sailed for Port Dalrymple later in October it did not re-enter Port Jackson until February 1815. Governor Macquarie was dissatisfied with Jeffreys's explanation of the delay, wanted to send the brig back to England as unfit for service and to discharge Jeffreys, whom he thought a timid seaman and ignorant of his duties; however, in April he dispatched Jeffreys to Ceylon with the remainder of the 73rd Regiment. Whilst on this voyage Jeffreys named Molle Island in the Whitsunday Passage after Lieutenant-Governor Molle, and Mount Jeffreys on Molle Island after himself. When sailing around Cape York Peninsula in May he discovered and named Princess Charlotte Bay. After his return to Port Jackson in 1816 he made two trips with convicts and stores to the Derwent, which he carried out satisfactorily, but in April 1817 the governor, still critical of Jeffreys's incompetence, reported that he was sending him in the Kangaroo to England. Macquarie instructed him not to touch at any port in either of the colonies, but Jeffreys disobeyed his instructions. He entered Hobart at the end of April under the pretext that he had lost a boat and suffered some damage, but with the real purpose of landing a large quantity of spirits. While the brig was in the Derwent it was learned that several prisoners were missing from Hobart, that two prisoners had been stowed at Port Jackson, and that the escaped Sydney merchant, Garnham Blaxcell, who owed a large sum of money to the government, was on board. When Lieutenant-Governor Sorell ordered two boats to patrol the river on the evening of 6 May Jeffreys boarded one of them, beat and abused the commander, Captain Jones, and took him and other crew members on board the Kangaroo as prisoners. The captured men were released next day and Jeffreys sailed for England a week later. Macquarie hoped that Jeffreys would be suitably punished, but legal impediments prevented his trial in England; however, at least he had given the British government the means of successfully prosecuting its claims against Blaxcell.

While in London Jeffreys arranged for publication of his Geographical and Descriptive Delineations of the Island of Van Diemen's Land in 1820. Most of the information for his work was obtained from the manuscript of Surveyor Evans who had travelled in the Kangaroo between Van Diemen's Land and Port Jackson. The book, now rare, was the first of many guides for immigrants intending to settle in Van Diemen's Land.

In May 1820 Jeffreys and his wife returned to Hobart in the Saracen with his Nephew George Lloyd, and later obtained a grant at Pittwater of 800 acres (324 ha), which he named Frogmore. The first house and all its contents were destroyed by fire soon after being built, but he immediately laid the foundations of another. However, Jeffreys did not prosper as a farmer. He died on 6 May 1826 and was buried at Sorell. His widow remained in the colony, and was allowed an additional grant of 500 acres (202 ha).

The information about Charles Jeffreys above is a slightly edited version of this page on the Australian Dictionary of Biography Online.

There is more on Charles Jeffreys here, and details and images of his drawing of Hobart Town in 1817 here and here, which also shows the Kangaroo Government Schooner, the Church, Government House and the Fort, much of which is also mentioned in George Lloyd's Thirty Three Years in Tasmania and Victoria (see top of page.)

Other Pages that may be of Interest